Volume 7, Issue 1, February 2018, Page: 14-18
Investigating the Changes of Total Organic Carbon Content in Bottled Water Under Environmental Stress Conditions
Sepideh Daghigi Masouleh, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Marine Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Fuad Shirmahi, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Marine Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Hossein Ghafourian, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Marine Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Taghi Sadatipour, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Marine Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Received: Feb. 6, 2018;       Accepted: Feb. 25, 2018;       Published: Mar. 29, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajep.20180701.13      View  858      Downloads  29
Abstract
The consumption of bottled drinking water has increased considerably in the recent years. The main objective of this study was to investigate the changes of total organic carbon (TOC) level in bottled water under various environmental stress conditions. In this study, samples of drinking water were taken just before and after bottling process from three mineral water bottling plants in Tehran province, and the comparison of the levels of TOC content of the water was evaluated before and after bottling process, and at the end of the consumption period. The results indicate that TOC level in mineral water increases over time. There were very few changes of TOC level in the bottled water after one day. After one month and then three months, the changes became more significant in a way that the TOC level increased from 1.6 to 2.33 mg/L. Studying the bottled waters just few days left to their expiration dates revealed that the level of TOC increased twice, i.e. from 1.6 to 2.9 mg/L. Also, the level of TOC in samples changed significantly one month after the expiration date, and it increased from the initial 1.6 to 3.2mg/L. The level of TOC in samples exposed to sun was almost four times more, and reached its highest level of 5.47 mg/L. Also, the level of changes in samples after freezing increased from initial 1.6 to 4.11 mg/L.
Keywords
Bottled Water, Organic, Compounds, TOC
To cite this article
Sepideh Daghigi Masouleh, Fuad Shirmahi, Hossein Ghafourian, Mohammad Taghi Sadatipour, Investigating the Changes of Total Organic Carbon Content in Bottled Water Under Environmental Stress Conditions, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2018, pp. 14-18. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20180701.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Bieroza Magdalena Zofia CHARACTERISING WATER TREATMENT WORKS PERFORMANCE USING FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY [Report]: PHD Dissertation / Civil Engineering; The University of Birmingham. - Birmingham: The University of Birmingham, 2009. - pp. 1-285.
[2]
Bittner George D. [et al.] Chemicals having estrogenic activity can be released from some bisphenol a-free, hard and clear, thermoplastic resins [Journal] // Environmental Health. - [s.l.]: BioMed Central. - 103: Vol. 13. - pp. 1-18.
[3]
Monarca S. [et al.] Studies of Migration of Potentialy Genotoxic Componds into Water Stored in PET Bottles [Journal] // Fd. Chem. Toxic.. - [s.l.]: Elsevier Sci. Comp. Pergamon., 1994. - 9: Vol. 32. - pp. 783-788.
[4]
Bourgeois Wilfrid, Burgess Joanna E and Stuetz Richard M On-line monitoring of wastewater quality: a review [Journal] // J Chem Technol Biotechnol. - 2001. - Vol. 76. - pp. 337-348.
[5]
Farhadkhani Marzieh [et al.] Assessment of drinking water quality from bottled water coolers [Journal] // Iranian Journal of Public Health. - 2014. - 5: Vol. 43. - pp. 647-681.
[6]
Carneado S. [et al.] Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles [Journal] // Food Chemistry. - [s.l.]: Elsevier Ltd., 2015. - Vol. 166. - pp. 544-550.
[7]
Sulaiman G. Muhammad, Lawen S. Esmail and Shelear H. Hasan Effect of storage temperature and sunlight exposure on the physicochemical properties of bottled water in Kurdistan region-Iraq [Journal] // J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage.. - [s.l.]: bioline, 2011. - 1: Vol. 15. - pp. 147-154.
[8]
Warburton Donald W. [et al.] A review of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Canada between 1981 and 1989 [Journal] // Can. J. Microbiol. - 1992. - Vol. 38. - pp. 12-19.
[9]
Warburton Donald W. A review of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Canada. Part 2. The need for more stringent standards and regulations [Journal] // Can. J. Microbiol. - 1993. - Vol. 39. - pp. 158-168.
[10]
WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality [Report]. - Malta: World Health Organization, 2011. - pp. 1-509.
Browse journals by subject